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Table 1 Patient characteristics of VHL and TSC groups

From: Central nervous system gadolinium accumulation in patients undergoing periodical contrast MRI screening for hereditary tumor syndromes

Parameter VHL group TSC group
Patients included 28 24
Clinical signs of Gadolinium toxicity 0 0
Radiological signs of Gadolinium accumulation 15 10
Mean age (y) 39 (16 to 63) 27 (4 to 67)
Mean number of MRIs (y) 10 (0 to >20) 16 (2 to >20)
Patient sex
 Men 11 11
 Women 17 13
Kidney disease
 No kidney disease 9 3
 Few bilateral cysts 10 5
 Multiple cysts 2 3
 Renal cell carcinoma 7 1
 Angiomyolipomas / 12
(Ab)normal kidney function
 Stage 1 (eGFR normal >90 ml/min/1.73m2) 25 20
 Gadolinium accumulation 12/25 13/20
 Stage 2 (eGFR 90–60 ml/min/1.73m2) 3 1
 Gadolinium accumulation 2/3 1/1
 Stage 3 (eGFR 30–59 ml/min/1.73m2) 1 3
 Gadolinium accumulation 1/1 2/3
 Abnormal liver function 0 0
  1. Note: data are number of patients, unless indicated otherwise
  2. All patients with AML also had few or multiple bilateral cysts, except for 1 patient with only AML