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Table 1 DNA glycosylases involved in BER in human (modified from refs. [12, 18])

From: Base excision repair and the role of MUTYH

Name Lyase activity Chromosome location Cellular localization Known substrates References
MBD4 (also called MED1) No 3q21–22 Nuclei G:T mismatches within methylated and unmethylated CpG sites. Can also remove uracil or 5-fluorouracil in G:U mismatches [1922]
MPG (also called AAG, ANPG, or MID1) No 16p13.3 Nuclei 3-methyladenine, 7-methyl-guanine, hypo-xanthine, ethenoA [2326]
SMUG1 No 12q13.3 Nuclei Uracil (U) in single or double strand DNA, with a preference for single strand DNA [27, 28]
TDG No 12q24.1 Nuclei G/T, C/T, and T/T mispairs. Also uracil and 5-bromouracil mispairs with guanine [2931]
UDG2 No 5 Nuclei U:A mismatch [32, 33]
UNG1 (also called DGU, UNG15, UDG1 or UDG1M) No 12q24.1 Mitochondria Uracil from misincorporation of dUMP residues by DNA polymerase or due to deamination of cytosine [3436]
UNG2 (also called UDG1A or UDG1N) No 12q24.1 Nuclei Uracil from misincorporation of dUMP residues by DNA polymerase or due to deamination of cytosine [35, 36]
MUTYH (also called MYH) Yes (weak) 1p32.1–34.3 Nuclei and mitochondria A:8-oxoG and 2-OH-A:G [37, 38]
NEIL1 (also called NEH1or FPG1) Yes 15q22–24 Nuclei Oxidized pyrimidines, such as thymine glycol, formamidopyrimidine (Fapy) and 5-hydroxyuracil. Also has a marginal activity towards 8-oxoguanine [39, 40]
NTH1 (also called NTHL1 or OCTS3) Yes 16p13.2–13.13 Nuclei and mitochondria Damaged DNA at cytosines, thymines and guanines [41, 42]
OGG1 (also called MMH, MUTM, or OGH1) Yes 3p26.2 Nuclei and mitochondria 8-oxoG:C, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine and 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-N-methylforma-midopyrimidine (FAPY) [43, 44]