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The role of selected egzo- and endogenic agents on preinitiation process of bladder cancer

The pilot study included 25 patients with symptoms of recurrent infection of the urinary tract.

The results of urine sediment cytology (presence of atypical cells = cytology +), which was performed in this group (positive in 92%), were accepted as an additional criterion for inclusion to the study group. The control group was consisted of the 78 female patients, from whom we obtained DNA from cervical smears, while realizing one of the local Screening Programs and these patients reported no complaints from the genitourinary system. In the DNA samples obtained from patients of the study group, the infection of the high-risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV=HPV+) was confirmed in 65%, the same group of patients were tested on the presence of high-risk HPV in material derived by catheterization of the urinary bladder, the result was positive (HPV +) in 32% cases. In the control group the presence of high-risk HPV DNA in samples derived from cervical smears were found in 20.6% of patients. In these group of HPV (+) patients, the DNA samples obtained from urine sediment, the methylation profile of five genes: p16INK4a, p14ARF, DAPK, RASSF1A, APC was analysed. It was based on an assessment of the presence or absence of specific "U" or "M" bands, which are the visualization of the PCR products after the electrophoresis in a polyacrylamide gel followed by staining using ethidium bromide. Two patients (DNA samples from the urine sediment: cytology + ; HPV +) demonstrated the presence of abnormal methylation profile. In the first case the result concern the p16INK4a gene, the second - the APC gene. In one case, during diagnostic transurethral bladder cystoscopy, verified by histopathological examination, the presence of squamous cell metaplasia was revealed. The second case was diagnosed with chronic cystitis. It appears that urine cytology supplemented by the DNA test for the presence of HPV and a molecular test for the presence of methylation of selected genes may provide a valuable indication for bladder cystoscopy. The study was financed by Genos NON-Public Healthcare funds.

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Correspondence to A Iwaniuk.

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This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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Iwaniuk, A., Owczarek, M., Pietrusiński, M. et al. The role of selected egzo- and endogenic agents on preinitiation process of bladder cancer. Hered Cancer Clin Pract 13, A14 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1186/1897-4287-13-S2-A14

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Keywords

  • Human Papilloma Virus
  • Papilloma
  • Cystitis
  • Methylation Profile
  • Urine Sediment